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Analysis of MIL-STD-461G


 

This paper
makes a detailed description of the differences between the latest version of the US military standard MIL-STD-461G and the previous version, summarizes the characteristics and trends of its changes, and analyzes some of the reasons for the changes.


Keywords
MIL-STD-461G; emission; sensitivity; applicability; procedure


Abstract
The differences between the MIL-STD-461G and MIL-STD-461F are introduced in detail. The characteristics and trends of the changes are summarized. Some of the reasons for the change are analyzed.


Keywords
MIL-STD-461G;emission;susceptibility;applicability;procedures

 

 

1 Overview
MIL-STD-461G was officially released on November 11, 2015 to replace MIL-STD-461F.
There are many changes in this version upgrade. It mainly includes reference standards, test layout, test equipment and test items.


2 Detailed changes
1 Scope
There is no change in this section.


2 The changes in the content of this part of the cited documents
are mainly related to the non-governmental publications, and the content has increased and decreased.
Removed reference to ANSI/NCSL Z540-1.
Added ISO/IEC 17025 reference.


3 Definitions
The changes in this section are mainly due to the addition of definitions of terms, and the order of descriptions has also been adjusted.


3.1 Added three definitions of terms:
3.1.2 Antenna port
3.1.4 Cable harness
3.1.5 Below deck exposure


3.2 Acronyms used in this standard
This part adds the following acronyms

  • AMSCI:Acquisition Management System Control
  • ANSI:American National Standards Institute
  • DID:Data Item Description
  • DSPO:Defense Standardization Program Office
  • E3:Electromagnetic Environmental Effects
  • ESD:Electrostatic Discharge
  • FFT:Fast Fourier Transform
  • FWHM:Full Width Half Maximum
  • ISO:International Organization for Standardization
  • MAD:Magnetic Anomaly Detectors
  • The following acronyms have been removed from this section
  • ISM – Industrial, Scientific and Medical


4 General requirements
4.3.5.1 Metal grounding plate
This section has larger requirements for the size of the metal grounding plate used outside the shielding room: the
metal grounding plate used outside the shielding room should exceed the test configuration boundary by at least 2.5 meters in each direction. The requirement in version F is 1.5 meters.


4.3.6 Power supply impedance
This section adds the specific requirements for the lap resistance between LISN and metal grounding plate, and deletes the cycle requirements for LISN impedance measurement.
LISN should be electrically bonded to the test grounding board or grounding facility, and the bonding resistance should not exceed 2.5mΩ.


4.3.7.2 Additional personnel and equipment
This section adds the following description:
All equipment and accessories, including antennas not actively used for the specified radiation, shall be removed from the test area or shielded room.


4.3.8 EUT test configuration
The content of this part has changed greatly and many.
Figures 2, 3, and 4 share some common minor changes in the test configurations, where the power outlets are brought as close as possible to the LISN. This reduces the impact of the power cord on the test.
 

Figure 2 General Test Configuration
 

 

Figure 3 General test configuration for EUT mounted to a non-conductive surface
 
For the newly added test arrangement, the test configuration of the floor-standing equipment with shielded chassis is given in detail.
 
Figure 4 General test configuration for floor standing equipment with shielded enclosure
 

 The test configuration of the floor-standing EUT has changed greatly. The power lines and interconnection lines should be arranged along the test table, and the F version is arranged along the ground.

Figure 5 General test configuration for floor standing equipment

4.3.8.2 EUT bonding
The following description is added to this part:
EUT bonding to the ground plane shall be verified according to the installation drawing or equipment specification before connecting cables and EMI testing. The verification process and results shall be documented in EMITR.



4.3.8.6.1 Added the following description for the interconnection harness or cable :
The part of the interconnection cable longer than 2m needs to be folded after the test configuration and placed at a height of 5cm from the ground plane.
All cables should be placed 5cm above the ground plane and supported with non-conductive material. Non-conductive material can be wood or foam.
If the EUT is a tall enclosure and the cable runs are from or near the top, the cables should go down to the ground plane and then run parallel to the test configuration boundary for a length of 2 m. If the EUT is a floor standing unit and the cables are run from the top, the cables should go down to the ground plane and then run parallel to the test configuration boundary for a length of 2 m. If the cable is laid from the bottom, the cable should go up to the ground plane and then run parallel to the test configuration boundary for a length of 2 m.



4.3.8.6.2 The following description is added to the input (main) power cord  :
For the limitation that the total length of the power cord cannot exceed 2.5 meters, the description of the exception situation is given. "For large EUT cables running from the top or from the bottom of vertical equipment, the total length will exceed 2.5 meters, but it needs to be kept to a minimum." "Insulation supports can be wood or foam"


4.3.10 Use of measuring equipment 
Add specific requirements for measuring receivers using FFT technology, described as follows:
Measuring receivers using FFT technology are acceptable. And given the specific setting parameters (Table II).


4.3.10.3.1 Bandwidth 
The changes in this section are mainly due to the addition of parameter settings and related explanations for FFT receivers.
The main change in Table 2 is the addition of setting parameters for the FFT receiver.

 
2/ FFT receiver. FFT measurement techniques can be used to provide FFT calculations in accordance with ANSI C63.2. The user interface of the measurement receiver must allow direct input of the parameters of Table II in the same manner for FFT time domain and frequency step mode measurements, there is no need or opportunity to directly control the FFT function.

4.3.11 Calibration of measuring equipment

The changes in this part are mainly due to the changes in the standards on which the calibration is based. In addition, more realistic relaxation requirements have been put forward for the calibration cycle of passive equipment. Described as follows:

依据本标准测量所需的主要测量设备和附件应依据ISO/IEC 17025或ISO 10012或根据可追溯到国家标准与技术研究所认可的校准程序进行校准。测量天线、电流探头和LISN等无源装置经过初次校准后,除非进行了维修,否则无须进行正式的校准。测量系统的完整性检查步骤足以决定无源装置是否可用。

5测试项目
项目描述发生了变化,所有项目均删掉了具体的频率范围,代之以更加易于理解的文字描述测试特征,使得测试项目的内含更具体易懂。删掉了F版中的CS106,增加了CS117,CS118。详见表4。

表4 发射和敏感度要求

 

对于要求矩阵的具体变化如下:
除了新增测试项目CS117、CS118和删掉项目CS106外,原有测试项目的变化主要是CS104和RS101两个项目上。
表5 要求矩阵
 

 
5 详细要求
5.4 CE101,传导发射,音频电流,电源线
5.4.1 CE101适用性
增加了如下描述:
对于安装到海军飞机上的设备,仅当平台包含反潜武器,且工作在30Hz和10kHz之间时适用,例如声纳和磁异探测仪等。
5.4.3.4 CE101测试步骤
本部分有如下变化:
5.4.3.4 b由原来的校准修改为系统完整性检查。
5.4.3.4 b (1)施加信号的频率由原来的1kHz,3kHz和10kHz修改为1.1kHz,3kHz和9.9kHz。

5.5 CE102,传导发射,射频电压,电源线
5.5.3.4 步骤
本部分增加了1个步骤如下:
5.5.3.4a (2) 在10.5kHz和100kHz频率施加90dBuV的信号到LISN的电源输出端。对于10.5kHz和100kHz频率,使用示波器高阻模式校验LISN上存在该信号并确认是否为正弦波。确认在LISN上建立了合适的信号后,断开LISN,用示波器50欧姆阻抗测量信号电压。LISN上的电压和50欧姆阻抗测量电压之比应在以下容差范围内:10.5 kHz = -14 dB (+1 dB/-2 dB),100 kHz = -3 dB (+1 dB/-2 dB)
5.5.3.4a(3)本条目中的校验信号频率由原来的10kHz,100kHz,2MHz和10MHz修改为10.5kHz,100kHz,1.95MHz和9.8MHz。

5.6 CE106,传导发射,射频电压,电源线
5.6.1CE106适用性
本部分增加了以下描述:
对于海军舰船应用且峰值发射功率大于1kW时,相对于1kW峰值功率每增加1dB,5%的排除频率将增加基频的0.1%。
排除频率= ± f * (0.05 + (0.001/dB) * (PtPk [dBm] – 60 [dBm]))
终止频率的描述修改为:
设备测试的上限频率取决于EUT发生或接收的最高频率。对于发生或接收频率低于1GHz的系统,频率上限为最高频率的20倍或18GHz,取较大者。对于发生或接收频率大于1GHz的系统,频率上限为最高频率的10倍或40GHz,取较小者。对于使用波导的设备,该要求不适用于低于8/10波导截止频率。
删掉了F版中的如下描述:
RE102适用于天线永久连接到EUT的设备的接收模式或待机模式。
5.6.2 CE106限值
c.条增加了以下描述:
对于海军舰船应用,二次和三次谐波将被抑制到-20dBm同时其他谐波和杂散发射应被抑制到-40dBm。对于发射占空比小于0.2%的限值可以放宽到0dBm。
5.6.3.4.1 b. 描述由“校准”改为“系统完整性检查”
5.6.3.4.2 b. 描述由“校准”改为“系统完整性检查”

5.7 CS101,传导敏感度,电源线
5.7.1 CS101适用性
描述修改为:
本要求适用于每相电流小于等于30A的交流设备和子系统和直流输入电源线,但不包括回线。如果系统的工作频率为150kHz或更小且工作灵敏度为1uV或更好(例如0.5uV),本要求也适用于大于30A的系统。对于直流工作的设备,本要求的适用频率范围为30Hz-150kHz。对于交流工作的设备,本要求的使用频率范围为EUT电源频率的2次谐波至150kHz。
5.7.3.1 目的
增加了以下描述:
有两种测量所施加信号的方法。方法一,使用电源输入端带有隔离变压器的示波器。方法二,使用带有传感器的测量接收机。传感器使得接收机与EUT的电源得到隔离同时降低了信号以保护接收机。

5.8 CS103,传导敏感度,天线端口,互调
5.8.1 CS103适用性
描述修改为:
当顶购方有要求时,接收机前端敏感度要求适用于通信接收机、射频功放、收发器、雷达接收机、声学接收机以及电子对抗接收机等设备和子系统,频率范围为15kHz-10GHz。

5.9 CS104,传导敏感度,天线端口,无用信号抑制
5.9.1 CS104适用性
描述修改为:
当顶购方有要求时,接收机前端敏感度要求适用于通信接收机、射频功放、收发器、雷达接收机、声学接收机以及电子对抗接收机等设备和子系统,频率范围为0Hz-20GHz。对于海军舰船和潜艇,本要求适用于所有接收机。适用频率范围是待评估单元前端设计的函数。

5.10 CS105 ,传导敏感度,天线端口,交调
5.10.1 CS105适用性
描述修改为:
当顶购方有要求时,接收机前端敏感度要求仅适用于通常处理调幅射频信号的接收机。频率范围为30Hz-0GHz。

5.11 CS109,传导敏感度,结构电流
5.11.1 CS109适用性
描述修改为:
本要求适用于工作频率不高于100kHz且工作灵敏度等于或优于1uV(例如0.5uV)的设备和子系统,频率范围为:60Hz-100kHz。本项目不适用于手持设备。

5.12 CS114,传导敏感度,大电缆注入
5.12.1 CS114适用性
描述修改为:
本要求适用于全部互联电缆包括电源电缆,频率范围为:10kHz-200MHz。对于安装到舰船或潜艇上的EUT,对EUT的完整电源电缆(高位线和回线,共模测试)在频率范围4kHz-1MHz增加了限值为77dBuA的共模测试。
5.12.2 CS114限值
描述修改为:
当给注入探头输入按图CS114-1校验并按要求施加调制的测试信号时,EUT不应出现任何故障、性能降低或偏离规定的指标值超出设备或子系统规范中给出的指标允差。图CS114-1中的相应曲线可以从表VI中选取。如果受试电缆上的实际感应电流在整个频率范围内达到以下数值时(曲线5=115dBuA,曲线4=103dBuA,曲线3=95dBuA,曲线2=89dBuA,曲线1=83dBuA),即使定向耦合器上监测的正向功率低于校验值,当EUT不敏感时,也认为它满足要求。
本要求不适用于接收机天线的同轴电缆,水面舰船和潜艇除外。
5.12.3.3配置
校准配置中同时加入了电流探头,使得校验值与实际情况更加符合。
 
图CS114-3 校准配置
5.12.3.4 步骤
增加了下面一条:
c.校验。在电流探头保持在校准配置中时,按照图CS114-4校验测试系统,执行扫描。
(1) 设置信号源为10kHz(调制是可选的且不该有影响)。
(2) 将5.12.3.4b(4)中确定的功率电平施加到注入探头,同时监视监测探头的感应电流。
(3) 使用最小驻留时间和表II中的两倍步长在要求的频率范围内扫描,保持前向功率为在5.12.3.4b(4)中确定的校准电平。验证校准时的前向功率和感应电流处于电流测试限值的3dB容差范围内。
 
图CS114-4 校验配置

5.13 CS115,传导敏感度,大电缆注入,脉冲激励
5.13.3.4c(2)(d)删掉了“确认敏感度门限电平高于限值”的描述。

5.14 CS116,传导敏感度,阻尼正弦瞬态,电缆和电源线
5.14.1 CS116适用性
本部分增加了测试频率范围的描述:
本要求适用于所有互联电缆、电源电缆和每根高电位电源线,频率范围为10kHz-100MHz。电源回线和中性线无须单独进行测试。对于潜艇应用,本要求仅适用于那些连接到耐压壳体外部的电缆。

5.15 CS117,传导敏感度,雷电感应瞬态,电缆和电源线
新增项目。
5.15.1 CS117适用性
本要求适用于所有安全关键设备的互联电缆,包括完整的电源线以及每根高位线。还适用于某些非安全关键功能设备,其互联电缆/电气接口连接到执行安全关键功能设备或其电器接口/电气接口是执行安全关键功能设备的一部分。当订购方有要求时,也适用于实行非安全关键功能的设备。本要求受限地适用于在甲板上走线的水面舰船设备。


5.15.2 CS117限值
当按表7规定的电平施加图CS117-1~CS117-8信号时,EUT不应出现任何故障、性能降低、或偏离规定指示值,超过独立设备或子系统规范中指示的容差。表7中瞬态的选用依据以前的经验考虑了缺省的数值和波形,且当主平台雷电瞬态不存在时将用于确定设备功能。当存在可用的平台雷电瞬态数据的情况下,这些数据可用于裁剪不同的等级或波形,由采购方确认。注意,电源线以及测试步骤部分定义的电缆束中电源线的应独立测试,测试电平在表7中定义。

5.15.3 CS117测试步骤
5.15.3.1 目的
本测试步骤用于确认EUT承受耦合到其电缆和电源线上的雷电瞬态的能力。

5.15.3.2 测试设备
测试设备如下:
a. 雷电瞬态发生器
b. 注入变压器
c. 示波器
d. 电流监视探头
e. 衰减器,50Ω,当电流监视探头需要时
f. 电压监视探头,高阻
g. 监视环,低阻线圈
h. 校准环,低阻线圈
i. 电容,直流输入端口≥28000uF,交流输入端口10uF
j. LISN

5.13.3.3 配置
测试配置如下:
a. 如图2~图5所示,如4.3.8节所述,保持EUT的基本测试配置。对于直流电源在LISN输入端高位线和回线之间应连接最小28000uF的电容,对于交流电源在LISN输入端高位线、回线和地之间应分别连接10uF的电容。
b. 校准。按图CS117-9配置测试设备校准波形,包含短路电流和开路电压。
c. EUT测试:
(1) 按图CS117-10,图CS117-11,图CS117-12配置测试设备.
(2) 将注入变压器和电流监视探头放置到EUT的某个线束上。
(3) 电流监视探头距离EUT连接器5-15cm。如果连接器和基座的总长度超过15cm,则将电流监视探头放到连接器基座尽可能近的地方。
(4) 注入变压器距离电流监视探头的距离为5-50cm。
(5) 将监视环放入注入变压器中连接电压监视探头。

5.15.3.4 步骤。
测试步骤如下:
a. 测量设备通电预热,达到稳定工作状态。


b. Calibration. Use the calibration configuration to verify the waveform as follows.
(1) Connect the transient generator to the primary of the injection transformer.
(2) For each waveform, at the specified test level (VT or IT), record the calibration loop open circuit voltage waveform and short circuit current waveform. Confirm that the waveform conforms to the waveform parameters shown in Figures CS117-1 to CS117-6. It is not necessary for the transient signal generator to generate extreme levels of voltage and current (VL or IL) and waveforms. However, if the transient signal generator has the ability to reach the specified limit level (VL or IL), record and verify the limit waveform at this time.
(3) For multi-pulse and multi-burst tests, the applicable pulse pattern and time parameters are also to be verified according to Figure CS117-7 and Figure CS117-8.
(4) Repeat 5.13.3.4 b(2) to 5.13.3.4 b(3) using the opposite polarity.


c. EUT test.
(1) The EUT and test equipment are powered on and preheated to reach a stable working state.
(2) Apply a transient signal and increase the output of the signal generator until it reaches the specified test level (VT or IT) or limit level (VL or IL). Adjust the signal source or injection transformer configuration to achieve the specified test level (VT or IT), unless the limiting level (VL or IL) is reached first. Recalibration is performed if the injection transformer configuration is changed. Record the waveform and the resulting amplitude level. If the limit level (VL or IL) is reached before the test level (VT or IT), the test will be re-evaluated to determine whether the test is acceptable as follows
: The limit waveform (amplitude and shape), the test is acceptable.
(b) The test is acceptable if the specified extreme waveforms are obtained during the test and are within the tolerance range of the waveforms shown in Figure CS117-1 to Figure CS117-6.
(c) If none of the above conditions are met, repeat the test on the same cable bundle using another transient generator capable of meeting the limit waveform requirements. In this case, the relevant limit level (VL or IL) becomes the test level (VT or IT), and the test level becomes the limit level. Recalibrate with an alternate transient generator.
Glitch or high-frequency noise caused by equipment noise, switching transients, or load effects are ignored when measuring voltage or current waveform levels.
(3) For the multi-pulse test, using the signal generator parameters established in 5.13.3.4c(2), apply a minimum of 10 multi-pulse applications while monitoring the operation of the EUT, the maximum time interval between multi-pulse transients No more than 5 minutes.
(4) For the multi-burst test, using the signal generator parameters established in 5.13.3.4c(2), apply a multi-burst application every 3 seconds, continuously for a minimum duration of 5 minutes.
(5) Repeat 5.13.3.4 c(2) through 5.13.3.4 c(4) using the opposite polarity.
(6) Repeat 5.13.3.4 c(2) to 5.13.3.4 c(5) on each wire harness that interfaces with each connector of the EUT. For power cords, repeat 5.13.3.4 c(2) through 5.13.3.4 c(5) on the complete power cord (high and return) and with the return and case ground wires (green wire) removed. For connectors containing interconnecting cables and power cords, repeat 5.13.3.4 c(2) through 5.13.3.4 on the complete cable, power cord (including high and return), power cord with return and ground removed, respectively c(5).


5.15.3.5 Data provision.
Data will be provided as follows:
a. Provide a listing of the waveforms and amplitudes tested on each cable.
b. Provides a graph of the calibration waveform.
c. Provides a graph of the test waveforms performed on each cable; one legend per polarity.
d. Provide each sensitivity threshold level data and associated waveforms.
e. Provide calibration data for current probes and attenuators.
f. Provide whether the sensitivity assessment requirements identified in 5.15.3.4c are met on each interface connector.
 

 

Figure CS114-3 Calibration configuration
 

Step 5.12.3.4
Add the following item:
c. check. To calibrate the test system per Figure CS114-4, perform a sweep while the current probe remains in the calibration configuration.
(1) Set the signal source to 10kHz (modulation is optional and should have no effect).
(2) Apply the power level determined in 5.12.3.4b(4) to the injection probe while monitoring the induced current of the monitoring probe.
(3) Sweep over the required frequency range using the minimum dwell time and twice the step size in Table II, maintaining the forward power at the calibration level determined in 5.12.3.4b(4). Verify that the forward power and sense current at the time of calibration are within 3dB of the current test limits.
 

Figure CS114-4 Verification configuration
5.13 CS115,传导敏感度,大电缆注入,脉冲激励
5.13.3.4c(2)(d)删掉了“确认敏感度门限电平高于限值”的描述。

5.14 CS116,传导敏感度,阻尼正弦瞬态,电缆和电源线
5.14.1 CS116适用性
本部分增加了测试频率范围的描述:
本要求适用于所有互联电缆、电源电缆和每根高电位电源线,频率范围为10kHz-100MHz。电源回线和中性线无须单独进行测试。对于潜艇应用,本要求仅适用于那些连接到耐压壳体外部的电缆。
5.15 CS117,传导敏感度,雷电感应瞬态,电缆和电源线

新增项目。
5.15.1 CS117适用性
本要求适用于所有安全关键设备的互联电缆,包括完整的电源线以及每根高位线。还适用于某些非安全关键功能设备,其互联电缆/电气接口连接到执行安全关键功能设备或其电器接口/电气接口是执行安全关键功能设备的一部分。当订购方有要求时,也适用于实行非安全关键功能的设备。本要求受限地适用于在甲板上走线的水面舰船设备。
5.15.2 CS117限值
当按表7规定的电平施加图CS117-1~CS117-8信号时,EUT不应出现任何故障、性能降低、或偏离规定指示值,超过独立设备或子系统规范中指示的容差。表7中瞬态的选用依据以前的经验考虑了缺省的数值和波形,且当主平台雷电瞬态不存在时将用于确定设备功能。当存在可用的平台雷电瞬态数据的情况下,这些数据可用于裁剪不同的等级或波形,由采购方确认。注意,电源线以及测试步骤部分定义的电缆束中电源线的应独立测试,测试电平在表7中定义。
5.15.3 CS117测试步骤
5.15.3.1 目的
本测试步骤用于确认EUT承受耦合到其电缆和电源线上的雷电瞬态的能力。
5.15.3.2 测试设备
测试设备如下:
a. 雷电瞬态发生器
b. 注入变压器
c. 示波器
d. 电流监视探头
e. 衰减器,50Ω,当电流监视探头需要时
f. 电压监视探头,高阻
g. 监视环,低阻线圈
h. 校准环,低阻线圈
i. 电容,直流输入端口≥28000uF,交流输入端口10uF
j. LISN

5.13.3.3 Configuration
The test configuration is as follows:
a. As shown in Figure 2 to Figure 5, as described in Section 4.3.8, keep the basic test configuration of the EUT. For DC power supply, a minimum of 28000uF capacitor should be connected between the high line and the return line of the LISN input terminal. For AC power supply, a 10uF capacitor should be connected between the high line, return line and ground of the LISN input terminal.
b. Calibration. Configure the test equipment calibration waveform according to Figure CS117-9, including short-circuit current and open-circuit voltage.
c. EUT test:
(1) Configure test equipment according to Figure CS117-10, Figure CS117-11, and Figure CS117-12.
(2) Place the injection transformer and current monitoring probe on a certain wiring harness of the EUT.
(3) The current monitoring probe is 5-15cm away from the EUT connector. If the total length of the connector and base exceeds 15 cm, place the current monitoring probe as close as possible to the base of the connector.
(4) The distance between the injection transformer and the current monitoring probe is 5-50cm.
(5) Put the monitoring ring into the injection transformer and connect the voltage monitoring probe.

5.15.3.4 Procedure.
The test steps are as follows:
a. The measuring equipment is powered on and preheated to reach a stable working state.
b. Calibration. Use the calibration configuration to verify the waveform as follows.
(1) Connect the transient generator to the primary of the injection transformer.
(2) For each waveform, at the specified test level (VT or IT), record the calibration loop open circuit voltage waveform and short circuit current waveform. Confirm that the waveform conforms to the waveform parameters shown in Figures CS117-1 to CS117-6. It is not necessary for the transient signal generator to generate extreme levels of voltage and current (VL or IL) and waveforms. However, if the transient signal generator has the ability to reach the specified limit level (VL or IL), record and verify the limit waveform at this time.
(3) For multi-pulse and multi-burst tests, the applicable pulse pattern and time parameters are also to be verified according to Figure CS117-7 and Figure CS117-8.
(4) Repeat 5.13.3.4 b(2) to 5.13.3.4 b(3) using the opposite polarity.
c. EUT test.
(1) The EUT and test equipment are powered on and preheated to reach a stable working state.
(2) Apply a transient signal and increase the output of the signal generator until it reaches the specified test level (VT or IT) or limit level (VL or IL). Adjust the signal source or injection transformer configuration to achieve the specified test level (VT or IT), unless the limiting level (VL or IL) is reached first. Recalibration is performed if the injection transformer configuration is changed. Record the waveform and the resulting amplitude level. If the limit level (VL or IL) is reached before the test level (VT or IT), the test will be re-evaluated to determine whether the test is acceptable as follows
: The limit waveform (amplitude and shape), the test is acceptable.
(b) The test is acceptable if the specified extreme waveforms are obtained during the test and are within the tolerance range of the waveforms shown in Figure CS117-1 to Figure CS117-6.
(c) If none of the above conditions are met, repeat the test on the same cable bundle using another transient generator capable of meeting the limit waveform requirements. In this case, the relevant limit level (VL or IL) becomes the test level (VT or IT), and the test level becomes the limit level. Recalibrate with an alternate transient generator.
Glitch or high-frequency noise caused by equipment noise, switching transients, or load effects are ignored when measuring voltage or current waveform levels.
(3) For the multi-pulse test, using the signal generator parameters established in 5.13.3.4c(2), apply a minimum of 10 multi-pulse applications while monitoring the operation of the EUT, the maximum time interval between multi-pulse transients No more than 5 minutes.
(4) For the multi-burst test, using the signal generator parameters established in 5.13.3.4c(2), apply a multi-burst application every 3 seconds, continuously for a minimum duration of 5 minutes.
(5) Repeat 5.13.3.4 c(2) through 5.13.3.4 c(4) using the opposite polarity.
(6) Repeat 5.13.3.4 c(2) to 5.13.3.4 c(5) on each wire harness that interfaces with each connector of the EUT. For power cords, repeat 5.13.3.4 c(2) through 5.13.3.4 c(5) on the complete power cord (high and return) and with the return and case ground wires (green wire) removed. For connectors containing interconnecting cables and power cords, repeat 5.13.3.4 c(2) through 5.13.3.4 on the complete cable, power cord (including high and return), power cord with return and ground removed, respectively c(5).

5.15.3.5 数据提供。
将提供如下数据:
a. 提供在每个电缆上进行测试的波形和幅度的列表。
b. 提供校准波形的图形。
c. 提供在每个电缆上进行的测试波形的图形;每个极性一个图例。
d. 提供每个敏感度门限电平数据和相关波形。
e. 提供电流探头和衰减器的校准数据。
f. 提供在每个接口连接器上是否满足由5.15.3.4c确定的敏感度评估要求。
 
 
图CS117-9 校准配置
 
图CS117-10 完整互联电缆的雷电瞬态注入
 
 
图CS117-11完整电源线(含高位线和回线)的雷电瞬态注入

 

图CS117-12不含回线和地线的电源线雷电瞬态注入

5.16 CS118, Electrostatic discharge caused by human body
is newly added.
5.16.1 CS118 Applicability
This requirement is applicable to electronic, electrical and electromechanical equipment or subsystems with human-machine interface. Not suitable for ordnance.
5.16.2 Limits of CS118
When discharging according to the level indicated in Table 8 using a circuit with 150pF/330Ω and an inductance not exceeding 5uH, the EUT should not have any failure, performance degradation, or deviate from the specified indicated value, exceeding the level of independent equipment or sub-assemblies. Tolerance indicated in the system specification. Use 8kV contact discharge for conductive surfaces. Air discharge is used when contact discharge is not possible.
5.16.3 Test steps
5.16.3.1 Purpose
This test step is used to verify the ability of the EUT to withstand the electrostatic discharge caused by the human body in the powered configuration.
5.16.3.2 Test equipment
The test equipment is as follows:
a. ESD generator, adjustable from ±2kV to ±15kV (minimum range), the simplified generator circuit is shown in Figure CS118-1 and Table 10.
b. ESD network, 150pF/330Ω.
c. Contact the discharge head, see Figure CS118-2.
d. Air discharge head, see Figure CS118-2.
e. Electrostatic meter.
f. Oscilloscope, bandwidth ≥ 1GHz.
g. ESD current target, input impedance 2Ω±5%, see Figure CS118-3.
h. Attenuator, 20dB.
i. Coaxial cable, 50Ω, ≤1m.
j. Metal ground plate.
k. Ionizer or 1MΩ resistor (1MΩ±10%).


5.16.3.3 Configuration
The test configuration is as follows:
a. Perform basic configuration according to Figure 2~Figure 5 and 4.3.8.
b. Test point selection. Electrostatic discharges shall be applied to points and surfaces that are accessible by the operator or installer in normal use. The selection of test points should include the following locations: any conductive and non-conductive points in the control or keyboard area and any other points that can be touched by the human body, such as: switches, knobs, buttons, LED indicators, gaps, holes, housing connectors and other accessible areas. At least every face should be included.
c. Calibration. Calibration steps are as follows:
(1) Install 150pF/330Ω electrostatic network and air discharge head on the ESD generator.
(2) The test equipment is powered on to preheat and reach a stable working state.
(3) ESD generator voltage verification:
(a) Configure test equipment according to CS118-5. Set up the electrostatic meter to monitor the ESD generator voltage.
(b) Set the output of the ESD generator to 2kV.
(c) Using a classic meter, verify that the output voltage of the ESD generator is within ±10% of the expected value.
(d) Repeat 5.16.3.3c(3) for each ESD test level in Table 8.
(4) Discharge current calibration. Measurement checks of this system shall be performed prior to testing and the results shall be documented.
(a) Configure the electrostatic current target, attenuator and oscilloscope according to Figure CS118-6.
(b) Configure the ESD simulator using the contact discharge head.
(c) Touch the contact discharge head of the ESD simulator to the current target and measure the waveform with an oscilloscope. Verify that each parameter on Table 9 and Figure CS118-4 is met.


5.16.3.4 Test procedure
The test procedure is as follows:
a. Maintaining the ESD generator ground strap length used in 5.16.3.3c, connect the ESD generator to the EUT case ground point in the test configuration.
b. The EUT is powered on during the test in a manner sufficient to verify its operation.
(1) Set the ESD generator discharge tip voltage to the test level selected from Table 8.
(2) Apply 5 positive polarity discharges and 5 negative polarity power generation to each test point of the EUT.
(3) Use the following method to apply electrostatic discharge:
(a) For contact discharge, directly touch the discharge head of the ESD simulator to the test point and then trigger the discharge of the ESD simulator.
(b) For air discharge, charge the ESD generator at a distance from the test point where discharge will not occur, then keep the discharge head perpendicular to the test point and slowly approach the test point at a speed not faster than 0.3m/s until A discharge occurs or a point of discharge is touched. During each discharge, the test point should be grounded briefly through a 1MΩ resistor, ionizer to remove residual voltage, or wait for it to drain.
Note: Not all voltage levels can cause discharge to insulating surfaces. If the test point can withstand this voltage, it is considered to meet the requirements.
(4) During the test, monitor whether the performance of the EUT is degraded.
(5) Repeat the test for each test level in Table 8.


5.16.3.5 Data provision
The data provided shall describe in detail each discharge point, discharge head used, applied voltage (including amplitude and polarity), discharge type (air or contact), application result (discharge or not) and cause results of the operation.

Table 8 ESD test level

 

Table 9 ESD simulator contact discharge current verification data

 
Table 10 General Specifications of ESD Generators
 
Figure CS118-1ESD Generator Diagram

 

Figure CS118-2 ESD generator discharge head
 
 
Figure CS118-3 ESD current target diagram
 
Figure CS118-4 Ideal contact discharge current waveform, 8kV
Figure CS118-5 Measurement system inspection configuration, discharge head voltage verification
Figure CS118-6 Measurement system check configuration, discharge current calibration

 

5.17 RE101, radiated emission,
description of magnetic field is revised as:
This requirement is applicable to the radiated emission of equipment and subsystem enclosures and their cable interfaces, frequency range: 30Hz-100kHz. This requirement does not apply to antenna radiation. For naval aircraft, this requirement applies only to anti-submarine warfare equipment with operating frequencies between 30Hz and 10kHz, such as acoustic receivers or magnetic anomaly detectors.
5.17.3.4b
The description was changed from "calibration" to "system integrity check".
5.17.3.4b(4)
The resistance of the ohmmeter measuring sensor coil is changed from "about 10 ohms" to "between 5 and 10 ohms"
5.18 RE102, radiated emission, electric field
5.18.1 The applicability
description of RE102 is changed to:
This requirement applies Radiated emissions from equipment and subsystem enclosures and all interconnecting cables. For equipment with permanently installed antennas, this requirement does not apply to signals at the fundamental frequency of the transmitter and the necessary occupied bandwidth. The applicability of this requirement is as follows:
a. Ground 2MHz-18GHz
b. Surface ships 10kHz-18GHz
c. Submarines 10kHz-18GHz
d. Aircraft (Army and Navy anti-submarine) 10kHz-18GHz
e. Aircraft (Air Force and Navy) 2MHz-18GHz
f . Space 10kHz-18GHz


5.18.3.4c
描述修改为:
使用图RE102-5的系统检查路径,从每个天线所使用的同轴电缆端至数据输出设备执行整个测量系统的评估,对于有源杆天线频率为:10.5kHz(仅用于在10kHz-2MHz范围内需要测量的情况),2.1MHz,12MHz和29.5MHz;对于双锥天线频率为:197MHz;对于大双脊喇叭天线频率为:990MHz;对于小双脊喇叭天线,频率为17.5GHz。对于安装了无源匹配网络的杆天线,在每个波段的中心频率处进行评估。当某个天线的测量路径发生变化时(例如: 同轴电缆、增减预放大器或使用了测量接收机的不同端口)需要进行系统检查。系统检查路径的校验将在受影响的波段的上端频率附近进行。
5.18.3.4d(1)
增加了一下描述:
目测检查每个天线是否有物理损坏。


5.19 RE103, Radiated Emissions, Antenna Spurious and Harmonic Output
5.19.1 The applicability description of RE103
is revised as follows:
When the antenna of the test transmitter is not removable, this requirement can replace CE106. This requirement is considered to be met when in transmit mode and emissions do not exceed the applicable limits of RE102. The CE106 is preferred unless design characteristics of the equipment and subsystems preclude its use. For systems using active antennas or where the antenna impedance has a non-standard impedance curve, the RE103 method is preferred. This requirement applies to the frequency range 10kHz-40GHz, but not to the EUT transmission signal bandwidth or the frequency range of ±5% of the fundamental frequency, whichever is greater. For naval ship applications and peak transmit power greater than 1kW, a 5% exclusion frequency will increase 0.1% of the base frequency for every 1dB increase relative to 1kW peak power.
Exclude frequency = ± f * (0.05 + (0.001/dB) * (PtPk [dBm] – 60 [dBm]))
According to the operating frequency range of the EUT, the starting frequency of the test is as follows:
Operating frequency range (EUT) Test start Frequency
10kHz-3MHz 10kHz
3MHz-300MHz 100kHz
300MHz-3GHz 1MHz
3GHz-40GHz 10MHz

The upper frequency limit for equipment testing is based on the highest frequency at which the EUT occurs or is received. For systems with a generating or receiving frequency less than 1 GHz, the upper limit frequency is 20 times the highest frequency or 18 GHz, whichever is greater. For systems with a generating or receiving frequency greater than or equal to 1 GHz, the upper limit frequency is 10 times the highest frequency or 40 GHz, whichever is smaller. For equipment using waveguides, this requirement does not apply to the frequency range below 0,8 times the waveguide cut-off frequency.
5.19.2 The limit
description is revised as follows:
Except for the second and third harmonics, all spurious emissions should be at least 80dB lower than the fundamental level. The second and third harmonics should be suppressed to -20dBm or 80dB below the fundamental frequency, whichever is less demanding. For naval ship applications, the second and third harmonics should be suppressed to -20dBm and all other harmonics and spurious emissions should be suppressed to -40dBm. If the duty cycle of the emission is less than 0.2%, the limit can be relaxed to 0dBm.
5.19.3.4 c 
The description is changed from "calibration" to "system integrity check".


5.20 RS101, radiation susceptibility, magnetic field
5.20.1 RS101 applicability
description is revised as:
This requirement is applicable to the enclosure of equipment or subsystem, including cable interface, frequency range: 30Hz-100kHz. This requirement does not apply to electromagnetic coupling through antennas. For Army and Navy ground equipment, this requirement applies only to vehicles with mine clearance or mine detection capabilities. For naval ships and submarines, this requirement only applies to equipment and subsystems whose operating frequency is 100kHz or less and whose operating sensitivity is 1uV or higher (eg 0.5uV). For naval aircraft, this requirement applies only to equipment installed on aircraft with anti-submarine warfare capabilities, and equipment installed on the outside of the aircraft that may be activated by electromagnetic launch systems.


5.21 RS103, Radiation susceptibility, electric field
5.21.1 The RS103 applicability
description is revised to read:
This requirement applies to the enclosures of equipment and subsystems and all interconnecting cables. Applicability of requirements is as follows:
a. 2MHz-30MHz for Army and Navy, all others are optional*
b. 30MHz-18GHz are all applicable
c. 18GHz-40GHz are all optional*
*Applicable only if required by purchaser
For Army and Air Force: There is no requirement to tune the frequency of the receiver connected to the antenna.
5.20.2 The limit value
description is revised as follows:
When the modulated electric field radiation is applied according to the requirements of Table 11, the EUT should not have any failure, performance degradation or deviation from the specified indication value, or exceed the index tolerance given in the specification of a single device or subsystem. Difference. At 30MHz and below, the vertical polarization field limit requirements should be met. Above 30MHz, the horizontal and vertical polarization field limit requirements should be met at the same time. Circularly polarized fields are not accepted.
For receiver EUTs with only permanently connected antennas, degraded performance over the receiver's entire operating frequency band is permitted, unless otherwise stated in the system specification. The receiver should meet its performance requirements after in-band exposure to radiated fields.
5.20.3.2 Test equipment
The item c receiving antenna in version F of the test equipment is deleted. Only the electric field sensor method is retained in version G.
5.20.3.3 Arrangement
In this section, all descriptions of the arrangement using the receiving antenna method have been completely deleted.
This part is described separately in revision F by calibration and test. In version G, the description is no longer classified by calibration and test arrangement, but focuses on the arrangement of electric field sensors and transmitting antennas.
In step 5.20.3.4,
the description about calibration in revision F has been deleted.
The specific requirements of the modulation signal are refined.
5.20.3.4 c(1)(a)
Set the signal source to 1kHz pulse modulation, 50% duty cycle. For each signal generator/modulation source combination, verify that modulation is present at the drive signal. Make sure the frequency, shape and depth of the modulation (minimum 40dB from peak to baseline) are correct. Using an appropriate amplifier and transmitting antenna, establish an electric field at the test start frequency. Gradually increase the electric field level until the applicable limit is reached.
5.21.3.5 Data submission
This part deletes the description of the receiving antenna method in version F.


5.22 RS105, Radiation susceptibility, transient electromagnetic field
5.22.1 RS105 applicability
description is revised as:
This requirement applies to equipment and subsystems exposed to external electromagnetic field environments. For surface vessels, this includes exterior, on-deck and below-deck exposed installations. No requirement applies to safety-critical equipment and subsystems used for safety purposes on Army aircraft when mounted externally.
5.22.3.2 Test equipment
The bandwidth of the oscilloscope in this section is changed from "500MHz" in version F to "700MHz".

 

3 Summary of changes in test items
3.1 Added items
CS117
and CS118
3.2 Deleted items
CS106
3.3 Items without substantial changes
CS103: Added a description of the frequency range in the scope of application.
CS104: Added the description of the frequency range in the scope of application.
CS105: Added the description of the frequency range in the scope of application.
CS109: Added the description of the frequency range in the scope of application.
CS115: Deleted the description of "confirm that the sensitivity threshold level is higher than the limit value" in the test procedure.
CS116: Added the description of the frequency range in the scope of application.
3.4 Item CE101 with minor changes
: the scope of application has changed, and the calibration frequency has been slightly adjusted.
CE102: Added a step in the system integrity check, and minor adjustments to the check frequency.
The applicability part of CE106 & RE103
has a big change.
1. For naval ship applications and when the transmit power is greater than 1kW, the exclusion frequency is relaxed.
2. The determination of the upper limit frequency of the test has been more specifically explained. For the highest frequency less than 1GHz, the upper limit frequency is 20 times the highest frequency or 18GHz, whichever is greater. For the highest frequency greater than 1GHz, the upper limit frequency is 10 times the highest frequency or 40GHz, whichever is the smallest.
3. New requirements are imposed on the limits for naval ship applications.
RE101&RS101:
In the scope of application, the description of the frequency range is added, and the restrictions applicable to naval aircraft are added.
In the part of system integrity check, the resistance range of ring sensor coil is changed to 5~10Ω.
RE102
1. There are some changes in the scope of application.
2. The frequency of the system integrity check part has been slightly adjusted.
RS105
1. There are some changes in the scope of application.
2. The bandwidth of the oscilloscope in the test equipment part is changed from "500MHz" in version F to "700MHz".
3.5 Items with large changes
CS101
1. In the scope of application, there are more restrictions on EUTs with a current greater than 30A.
2. A new measurement method using a measurement receiver with a sensor has been added to the test procedure. The sensor isolates the receiver from the EUT's power supply and reduces the signal to protect the receiver.
CS114
1. Limit requirements have changed.
The requirements of version F are: "If the actual induced current on the tested cable is 6dB higher than the limit value, even if the forward power level monitored on the directional coupler is lower than the inspection value, when the EUT is not sensitive, it is considered to meet the requirements The requirements of version G are: "
If the actual induced current on the cable under test reaches the following values ​​in the entire frequency range (curve 5=115dBuA, curve 4=103dBuA, curve 3=95dBuA, curve 2=89dBuA, curve 1 =83dBuA), even if the forward power monitored on the directional coupler is lower than the calibration value, when the EUT is not sensitive, it is considered to meet the requirements." 2. The current monitoring probe and its calibration device are added to the calibration configuration to make
it It is more in line with the actual situation.
3. Added system verification configuration to verify whether the measurement tolerance of the test system is normal.
RS103
1. Scope of application, the content of this part has changed greatly.
2. Limits, this section adds relaxation requirements for receiver EUTs with only permanently connected antennas.
3. For the test method, the receiving antenna method above 1GHz is deleted, and only the electric field sensor method is allowed in the whole frequency band.

 

4 Summary
In the test layout section, there are more specific requirements on cable layout methods and EUT placement. The size requirements of the metal ground plate required for shielded outdoor testing are larger. In addition, the biggest change is the location requirements of cables in the test layout of floor-standing equipment.
The biggest change in the test equipment part is the introduction of the FFT receiver, and detailed setting parameters are given.
The test items section changes the most. Added CS117 and CS118 tests, deleted CS106 test. The reason is that the nature of the CS106 test can be replaced by the CS115 and CS116 tests. In the CS101 test method, a test method using a receiver plus a sensor is added, which can better avoid the influence of the operating frequency of the AC power supply on the measurement results. In the calibration configuration of CS114, the influence of the current monitoring probe is considered, and the specific configuration and steps of system verification are added. The calibration of RS103 no longer allows the use of the receiving antenna method, because the antenna may cause a large disturbance to the electric field. There are different changes in the scope of application of other test items, test configurations, test equipment and test methods.
In general, this version upgrade has more specific and detailed constraints in the scope of application. The changes in test configuration and test methods are more in line with actual needs and more reasonable.
 

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